A-Interface / IS-634
The A-interface is the interface between the BSC and the Mobile Switching Center in a GSM network. It is used for carrying traffic channels and it is the BSSAP user part of the SS7 stack. Although there are usually transcoding (compressing/ decompressing) units between BSC and MSC, the signaling communication takes place between these two points and the transcoder unit doesn't touch the SS7 information, rather only the voice or CS data are transcoded or rate adapted. In the context of Decell, Autoroute-1 receives it raw information from the network probes that are located on the A-interfaces. The main advantage of this architecture is the simplicity of connecting Autoroute-1 to any cellular network and rolling out a nationwide system. In CDMA networks the corresponding interface is called IS-634.
The Abis-interface is the interface between the Base Transceiver Station and Base Station Controller, generally carried by a DS-1, ES-1, or E1 TDM circuit. This interface uses TDM sub channels for traffic (TCH), LAPD protocol for BTS supervision and telecom signaling, and carries synchronization from the BSC to the BTS and MS. There are about 10 times more Abis-Interfaces than A-Interfaces, making an Abis-based CFCD system dramatically more complex and expensive to set up.
Accuracy is the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated value to its actual or specified value. In the context of traffic information, accuracy is a measure of how close the estimated travel times by the Decell Autoroute-1 system are to the travel time actually present at any time.
Average Revenue per User or Average Revenue per Unit. This value is an indication of the level of average usage of an average user in the mobile network. Offering value-added services to its customers, a cellular operator can increase its ARPU and therefore its profitability.
Capital expenditures or the funds that a company is paying for equipment and infrastructure. The lower the capital expenditure, the more profitably the company can operate. Decell offers cellular network operators the possibility to use their existing infrastructure and to start generating an additional revenue stream offering real-time traffic information.
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a channel access method utilized by various radio communication technologies. CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel. Decell's Autoroute-1 system can be easily integrated to any CDMA cellular network.
A cellular event is an activity in the cellular network, such as call start, call end, or text message transmission. Each cellular event triggers an entry in a central database. Decell's Autoroute-1 uses the information of thousands of such events per second in order to calculate both the location and speed of mobile phones.
Cellular Floating Car Data (also knows as Net FCD or C-FCD) is a method by which traffic speeds on the road network can be determined. It is based on the collection of mobiles’ localization data, speed, direction of travel, and time information from driving vehicles. These data are the essential source for traffic information and for most intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This means that every appropriately equipped vehicle acts as a sensor for the road network. Based on this data, traffic jams can be identified, travel times can be calculated, and traffic reports can be instantly generated.
In contrast to traffic cameras, number plate recognition systems, and sensor loops embedded in the roadway, no additional hardware either on the road network or in vehicles is necessary.
A measure of the number of subscribers who leave the operator or switch to another carrier's service in a given timeframe. Cellular operator wants to keep their churn rate as low as possible as it is always more expensive to add new subscribers rather than retain existing ones. By offering value-added services, cellular operator’s can lower their churn rate.
In the context of traffic information, coverage represents the road network for which traffic information can be obtained. Naturally, the bigger the coverage, the more information is supplied about the road network and the more information drivers have about their planned route.
Dynamic Navigation and Route Guidance
Dynamic Navigation is the result of combining a navigation system with a real time traffic information service. This enables the navigation system to recalculate and adjust its route planning taking into account real time traffic flow, including accident and roadwork alerts. As a result, the route planning becomes dynamic and calculates the fastest route of that instance, not only the shortest.
Estimated Travel Time. The time that is estimated by the Decell Autoroute-1 system to travel a particular road segment.
Floating Car Data
Floating car data (FCD) is a method by which traffic speeds on the road network can be determined. It is based on the collection of localization data, speed, direction of travel, and time information from driving vehicles using GPS and/or cellular location data.
Global Positioning System. Utilizing a constellation of at least 24 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals, the system enables a GPS receiver to determine its location, speed, and direction. GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide and a useful tool for map-making, land surveying, commerce, and scientific uses. GPS also provides a precise time reference used in many applications including scientific study of earthquakes, and synchronization of telecommunications networks.
Global System for Mobile Communications is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 82% of the global mobile market currently uses the standard. GSM is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. Naturally, Decell can interface with every GSM cellular network.
IS-634 - See A-Interface
Intelligent Transportation Systems. The term intelligent transportation systems refers to efforts to add information and communication technologies to ground transport infrastructure and vehicles in an effort to manage factors that typically are at odds with each other, such as vehicles, loads, and routes to improve safety and reduce vehicle wear, transportation times and fuel consumption. Interest in ITS arises from the problems caused by traffic congestion worldwide and a possible synergy between new information technologies for simulation, real-time control and communications networks. Traffic congestion has been increasing world-wide as a result of increased motorization, urbanization, population growth and changes in population density. Congestion reduces efficiency of transportation infrastructure and increases travel time, air pollution and fuel consumption. Decell is very much interested in the further development of ITS infrastructure worldwide and is therefore one of the founding members of ITS Israel (www.ITS-Israel.org) and an active participant in many activities of ITS organizations worldwide.
In the context of traffic information, it is the time delay between a physical occurrence on the road and the time the concerning information is broadcasted to the public. Decell is always striving to lower latency to the bare minimum.
Location Based Services (LBS) describes basically all services that include location as the common denominator. For example, a traffic information service is a location-based service. But also emergency locators (E911), stolen vehicle tracking services, operator-based route assistance, or a service that brings a user to the nearest restaurant or other point of interest. All location based services require a digital roadmap and a navigation device in order to operate.
Network probes are small hardware devices that are designed to passively collect data. Probes provide the mechanism needed to gather data essential to the construction of network history and trends. In the context of Decell's Autoroute-1 system, network probes located on the A-interface of the cellular operator gather and deliver the raw data that is necessary for the system to calculate real-time traffic information.
Off-board navigation systems are usually mobile handsets (or Smartphones) that make a data connection to a central server to obtain routing information and map data. Typically, the routing request is made from the phone, but the route calculation is performed on the server (where the map resides as well) and only the outcome and a part of the map is transferred to the phone.
On-board navigation systems have the navigation software and map data on board of the device, i.e. pre-installed or with software and maps on a flash memory card. A mobile data connection is not required to perform navigation functions. This model is typically used by wireless devices with strong memory and processing power features.
Parallel roads are roads that run at least for some distance virtually parallel to each other. In the context of CFCD, parallel roads can be tricky to monitor as they may share the same mobile network cells and therefore, it may be difficult to determine which car is traveling on which road. In the case of Autoroute-1, Decell was able to develop sophisticated mathematical algorithms and other statistical analysis tools that allow the system to definitely differentiate between parallel roads, thereby increasing accuracy of the traffic information dramatically.
Patens are exclusive rights to an invention or design. The invention or design is protected by a patent against unauthorized used by others. In the context of Decell, the company’s technology is protected by worldwide patents part of which are based on US patents 6341255 and 6490519. Decell is adamant to protect its patents worldwide.
Portable Navigation Device
Commonly referred to as Portable Navigation Device (PND), a PND is a portable electronics device that integrates all hardware and software components necessary for turn-by-turn navigation. A PND is handheld and/or is removable if it is put on a socket in a car, bicycle or motorcycle.
Positioning is a technique used by telecommunication companies to approximate where a mobile phone, and thereby also its user, is located.
In the context of CFCD, it is imperative that the privacy of the mobile users is maintained. More specifically, the location and movement of users are strongly confidential and may under no circumstances reach the public domain. Decell's Autoroute-1 system maintains at all times users' privacy and therefore comply with all relevant EU privacy regulations.
RDS - See TMC
Real time is an expression that stands for a calculation methodology whereby a computer system arranges information quickly and reacts in a short time that is very close to actual events. For Decell, real-time is a key value in the provision of traffic information.
A road segment is a section of road between two points. In the context of traffic information, a section of road stretches generally between two intersections or junctions. Estimated travel times (ETT) is available for each segment.
A physical device installed in the road infrastructure and is used to monitor traffic. The most common type of road sensors is the inductive loop sensors. Inductive loop sensors are placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass over the loop by measuring the vehicle's magnetic field. The simplest detectors count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States) that pass over the loop, while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed, length and weight of vehicles and the distance between them. Loops can be placed in a single lane or across multiple lanes, and work with very slow or stopped traffic flow as well as vehicles moving at high-speed. While physical road sensors have their benefits, there are several major disadvantages, most importantly their cost. The main cost may not necessarily be the purchase, but installation, operation and maintenance are very costly. A massive connectivity and communication network is required for their operation and they often have to be replaced when the roads needs to be repaired. Furthermore, repair of such sensors often requires the road or lane to be closed. The cost of maintaining these sensors weighs heavily on the budget of the organizations that operate them.
Statistical analysis refers to a collection of methods used to process large amounts of data and overall trends. It is particularly useful when dealing with noisy data. Statistical analysis provides ways to objectively report on how unusual an event is based on historical data. In the context of the Decell Autoroute-1 system, statistical analysis is one of several main tools to filter out information that is considered to be of low quality and may otherwise decrease the system’s output.
Traffic Message Channel (TMC) is an application of the widely known Radio Data System (RDS). With TMC, a navigation system can receive traffic information through RDS-encoded radio signals. The information broadcasted mainly consists of traffic information (congestions, road work), weather information etc. TMC is a technology used for enabling dynamic traffic services. The TMC codex ties incidents to a limited number of geocodes on the digital maps. Developers in the navigation sector are working on the successor to TMC, called Agora-C, which enables geo references at an unlimited number of locations on the map.
Traffic information refers to provisioning of data on general traffic conditions, locations and severity of traffic congestions, road construction detours/slowdowns, on roadways. The more information about the real-time condition on the roadway an individual or a group of individuals have, the better and more precise they can made decisions that effect their routs. This can have a positive impact on travel times, more effective use of the road network, as well as less fuel consumption and lower emissions.
Turn-by-turn navigation is a term originally meant to describe a car navigation device that is capable of displaying required turns (e.g. displayed by arrows) to guide the driver along the correct route. Turn-by-turn also means that the navigation system and its map have to be accurate enough to allow providing precise routing instructions.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System - a 3G mobile phone technology designed to be the successor of the GSM standard. Naturally, Decell can easily interface with a UMTS network as well as all other technologies.